I have created a number of tables like the one above to act as memory aids for me when going back over the Rugby Union Laws. The table above shows the main outcomes from a maul where there is an exception to the Laws.
One thing it shows is that if you are unsure what to award, a penalty is a safe bet!
Remember that if a maul is unsuccessful then a scrum is formed and the team who did not take the ball into the maul get the put in. The exception is if the ball is caught from a kick (except kick-off and drop-out) and the kicker is then taken into a maul. In that case the catchers team get the put in to the scrum.